N.Sazonova, R.Browning, and E.Sazonov, Med Sci Sports Exerc. 2011 Jul;43(7):1312-21.
Purpose: The aim of this study was to develop and validate a method for predicting energy expenditure (EE) using a footwear-based system with integrated accelerometer and pressure sensors. Methods: We developed a footwear-based device with an embedded accelerometer and insole pressure sensors for the prediction of EE. The data from the device can be used to perform accurate recognition of major postures and activities and to estimate EE using the acceleration, pressure, and posture/activity classification information in a branched algorithm without the need for individual calibration.We measured EE via indirect calorimetry as 16 adults (body mass index = 19–39 kgImj2) performed various low- to moderateintensity activities and compared measured versus predicted EE using several models based on the acceleration and pressure signals. Results: Inclusion of pressure data resulted in better accuracy of EE prediction during static postures such as sitting and standing. The activity-based branched model that included predictors from accelerometer and pressure sensors (BACC-PS) achieved the lowest error (e.g., root mean squared error (RMSE) = 0.69 METs) compared with the accelerometer-only–based branched model BACC (RMSE = 0.77 METs) and nonbranched model (RMSE = 0.94–0.99 METs). Comparison of EE prediction models using data from both legs versus models using data from a single leg indicates that only one shoe needs to be equipped with sensors. Conclusions: These results suggest that foot acceleration combined with insole pressure measurement, when used in an activity-specific branched model, can accurately estimate the EE associated with common daily postures and activities. The accuracy and unobtrusiveness of a footwearbased device may make it an effective physical activity monitoring tool.
Key Words: INDIRECT CALORIMETRY, PRESSURE SENSORS, ACCELEROMETRY, WEARABLE SENSORS, SHOE